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    新疆时时彩四星开奖号走势: GRE® Test Fairness and Validity

    ETS and the GRE® Program make ensuring the fairness and validity of GRE tests throughout the test development, administration and scoring processes a high priority. To ensure that these goals are reached, ETS has developed a meticulous system of internal checks and balances, and audit teams routinely verify that all tests and services meet rigorous professional standards such as those outlined by the American Psychological Association, American Educational Research Association and National Council on Measurement in Education.

    Fairness

    Fairness concerns are an integral part of the development and scoring of all tests. The many activities that ensure fairness include:

    • fairness evaluations by trained reviewers
    • routine analyses of test questions to establish that questions do not unfairly contribute to group differences
    • rigorous training for all persons involved in the development or scoring of test questions to ensure that all test takers have an equal opportunity to demonstrate their skills and abilities
    • appropriate accommodations (e.g., alternate test formats, extra time) for test takers who have disabilities or health-related needs

    Validity

    Validity research and analyses establish that the test measures what it is supposed to measure. The GRE Program has documented evidence of the following types of validity in GRE tests:

    • construct validity (the test measures the skills/abilities that should be measured)
    • content validity (the test measures appropriate content)
    • predictive validity (the test predicts success)
    • consequential validity (the test demonstrates that adverse consequences are minimal)
    • external validity (the test has the expected relationship with other measures of the same construct)

    Although ETS works to accumulate validity evidence at each stage of the delivery and scoring process, the initial impetus for validity research comes from feedback from members of the graduate school community, who provide information about the skills and abilities that they consider essential for success in graduate school.

    Verbal Reasoning Section

    The Verbal Reasoning section of the GRE® General Test measures skills that faculty have identified through surveys as important for graduate-level success. The capabilities that are assessed include:

    • the ability to understand text (such as the ability to understand the meanings of sentences, to summarize a text or to distinguish major points from irrelevant points in a passage)
    • the ability to interpret discourse (such as the ability to draw conclusions, to infer missing information or to identify assumptions)

    Quantitative Reasoning Section

    The Quantitative Reasoning section of the GRE General Test measures skills that are consistent with those outlined in the Mathematical Association of America's Quantitative Reasoning for College Graduates: A Complement to the Standards. The skills that are assessed in the GRE quantitative measure include:

    • reading and understanding quantitative information
    • interpreting and analyzing quantitative information, including drawing inferences from data
    • using mathematical methods to solve quantitative problems

    Analytical Writing Section

    Interviews with graduate-level faculty, surveys of graduate-level faculty and the work of the GRE Writing Test Committee have consistently identified critical thinking and writing skills as important for success in graduate programs.

    The two tasks that comprise the Analytical Writing section (evaluating an issue and evaluating an argument) are both considered essential in many fields of graduate study. Thus, the structure of the test can be shown to have content validity because the test assesses skills identified by the graduate community as essential for success in many fields of graduate-level work.

    Other types of validity evidence, such as construct validity, are documented in a variety of studies. In particular, large validity studies were conducted during the development of the Analytical Writing section, such as:

    These studies contain evidence of the psychometric quality of the Analytical Writing section. Additional studies focus on particular aspects of validity, such as a comparison of the usefulness of the Analytical Writing section with that of the personal statement. That research has shown that the Analytical Writing score is correlated with academic writing more highly than the personal statement.

    See also:

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  • 钱念孙做客徽派以出世精神 做入世事业 2019-07-21
  • 中国梦大国工匠篇——治国理政新实践山西篇系列专题——黄河新闻网 2019-06-22
  • 机器人送快递将在西安试点 识别红绿灯还能“车让人” 2019-06-22
  • 紫光阁中共中央国家机关工作委员会 2019-05-25
  • 石家庄绘制“农业强 农村美 农民富”美丽乡村新画卷 2019-05-14
  • 壮阔东方潮 奋进新时代——庆祝改革开放40年——山西黄河新闻网 2019-05-14
  • 人民日报人民论坛:“岂可空张一目罗” 2019-05-14
  • 长城课堂茶余饭后话端午 让你的知识多一点 2019-05-13
  • 滨海湾新区要变“湾区明珠” 2019-05-13
  • 重阳节“陪伴,是最长情的告白” 2019-05-13
  • 【大家谈】让实干成为党员干部的标配 2019-05-12
  • 特朗普所谓交易的艺术,实质上是勒索的艺术。 2019-05-12
  • 婚宴用酒市场变了,这些你知道么?婚宴 市场 2019-05-12
  • 肩负好新时代党的历史使命 2019-05-11
  • “绿水青山就是金山银山”的生动实践——国家生态文明建设示范地区发展纪实 2019-05-11